This study is a contribution to the analysis of food vulnerability of households in the Lake town of Sô - Ava. To achieve this, an socio - economic investigation was conducted using a questionnaire with two hundred and forty (240) households obtained by random sampling method. Data on the population, the main foodstuffs, and socio-economic situation of households were collected. These data were subject of processing using two food vulnerability assessment tools such as: food diversity score and the level of food insecurity at the level of households which are methods developed by FAO and the FANTA (Food And Nutrition Technical Assistance) project. The used food diversity includes fourteen (14) food groups. A point was awarded by consumed food group in the 24 hours preceding the survey by the household referent. The score and the category of household food insecurity were defined by the FANTA and FAO method.
The results showed that the food diversity is low enough in Sô-Ava (6.58 consumed food groups on daily average out of 14 groups) and that a significant proportion of the population is in food insecurity (nearly 70% in low, average and severe insecurity). Furthermore, the diet is based on cereals and the added fat vegetables and fish. The food diversity is improving when the economic level increases and is higher when the consumed soup is cooked at home.